In order for humans to get to Mars, a spacecraft of great engineering would need to be built, one that would certainly be the most expensive vehicle ever made by man. In the movie, the Martian, a spacecraft called the Hermes is used to get between Earth and Mars. The thought of travelling to Mars has been questioned for decades, with Walter Hohmann proposing an elliptical orbit between the two planets. The movie shows the Purnell manoeuvre which shows a slingshot effect to get to Mars in a short time (it travels at 12,000mph) , the large spacecraft is not powered by chemicals, since they produce a large thrust in a short period of time, and an ion drive would need to be used. This will give gradual thrust over time and will last longer periods, currently these drives are not powerful enough to power a spacecraft like the Hermes, but it has been used successfully in the Dawn Spacecraft.
The stated downside of such an ion dive, which accelerates at 2 millimetres per second, is that the trajectory would need to be measured through a computer system, as any uncertainty could cause a major accident. In the movie it would take 124 days to get from Earth to Mars, through the ion drives, but NASA estimates a vessel would take 6 months to get to Mars. Whilst this technology is in its early stages, there is a lot of promise in how this could be vital for travel in space technology in the future. At the moment they have an efficiency of 60-85% and it is 10-12 times (according to NASA) more efficient than a chemical thruster that has been used in older spacecrafts.
The cost is the greatest factor of a spacecraft capable to travel to Mars. The price would be estimated at above $100 billion, and with a maximum of $500 billion. These figures are extremely excessive with relativity to NASA’s current funding, it equates to around 30 years of government funding to even begin a small scale production of the Hermes’s technology. The material that the Hermes would be built of, would need to shield it's passengers from radiation and the sun, a lack of this could have harmful effects on a human. If we look at the ISS, it cost $150 billion at the time, and it was incredibly advanced, but the Hermes would topple the ISS in terms of magnitude and technology. At the moment SpaceX is the closest we have to the Hermes, and Elon Musk is striding towards making Mars colonization a reality and he is taking the initiative towards that.
Bacteria are unicellular microorganism that cause harm and diseases in the human body.
Water is an essential component in everyday life to humans. However if not careful water can become infected creating water born diseases such as cholera. After many years of research scientists have come up with a way of sterilizing water with the use of UV rays (Ultraviolet Radiation) emitted from an LED. Ultraviolet radiation is found between X-ray and Visible light on the Electromagnetic spectrum, it has a wavelength of around 100 to 400 nm which is used to kill bacteria and sterilize drinking water. The process of which this is known as: Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation. There are 3 types of Ultraviolet Radiation: UV-A (100-280nm), UV-B (280nm - 315 nm), and UV-C (315 nm - 400 nm).
Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation
Germicidal UV radiation is produced and sent by a mercury vapour lamp. As these types of Ultraviolet radiation can be harmful to humans this method of Germicidal Irradiation is practiced behind enclose spaces with shielding in order for us to be protected.
During Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation UV-C is used which ultimately disrupt and deactivate the DNA found in bacteria and viruses. This will result in that Bacteria not being able to carry out its function and reproducing by binary fission. In bacteria Nucleic Acids are also disrupted as of the formation of covalent bonds and further breaking bonds in the DNA and Nucleic Acids. If the bacteria and viruses are unable to reproduce this will result in them not passing on the DNA and nucleic acids and increasing in numbers. Once the DNA absorbs these photons this will create a DNA pyrimidine dimers (producing same molecules) this will alter the order of the bases and eventually it will lead to a random mutation where microorganisms will eventually die.
Scientists have ensured us that water will now be free of bacteria and any water born disease thanks to this LED gadget.
In recent times, rapid rises in global temperatures have led to a boost in mercury levels in fish by up to seven times the current rate, increasing by 200% and 500% researchers have concluded.
Experiments have been carried out by researchers and scientists, in which they have found that the extra rainfall drives up the amount of organic material flowing into our seas. With this extra organic material, food chains are altered and the concentration of mercury increases. Along with this, mercury is bioaccumulating, and is built up in the adipose tissue of successive trophic levels; leading up to larger fish, and this causes an overall increase in the amount of mercury in fishes, furthermore leading to many issues. Mercury has a significant impact on the central nervous system, and produce harmful effects on the digestive and immune systems, too much mercury can lead to fatal consequences, and we need to solve this issue.
Mercury is one of the world’s most toxic metals. It is also one of the top ten threats to public health, according to the World Health Organization. The effects high levels of mercury can have are substantial, with damage to the nervous system, paralysis and mental impairment in children just some of them. One of the most common form of exposure to mercury is by eating fish which contain methylmercury. This is an organic form of the metal which forms bacteria, when reacted with mercury found in water, soil or plants, at the expense of phytoplankton.
Under the warmest climate scenario, there would be an increase in organic matter runoff of 15-20% by the end of the century. This would see levels of methylmercury in zooplankton, which is the bottom link in the food chain, grow by two to seven fold. There would be different impacts suffered around different parts of the world, with lakes and coastal waters in the northern hemisphere being most likely to have a significant increase in methylmercury fish. The mediterranean and Southern Africa will likely see reductions.
Researchers hope that the Minamata treaty will be successful and countries reduce the amount of mercury being produced. With many countries relying heavily on fish as a source of food, and the level of fish being eaten all over the world, the level of methylmercury within human bodies is likely to increase. If the level is not decreased, the impacts to human health could be severe. To add to our woes, the appointment of Donald Trump’s cabinet, contains many climate change sceptic members, and this could lead to an increase in the mercury problem we are facing.
Researchers at Åbo Akademi University situated in Finland have collaborated with scientists in the US to improve the overall mood of an individual facing minor to major cases of depression and anxiety. Their groundbreaking discovery revealed new molecular information on how the brain regulates depression and anxiety. In doing so, they identified a new molecule that alleviates anxiety and depressive behaviour in rodents. Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent disorders and represent one of the largest causes of disability worldwide. These experiments, research and results are highly regarded and important as many patients do not respond to current treatments in way that alleviates their condition significantly and it has long been recognised that a new understanding of these disorders would be necessary in order to identify drugs for treatment resistant depression.
From their extensive research, the researchers in Finland and the United States have found a protein called JNK, and when activated, it represses the generation of new neurons in the hippocampus (an area of the brain that controls emotions and learning). Researchers at the university used virus tools to find out where the JNK inhibitor was located within the brain that acted to improve mood. They found out that the molecule acts to alleviate anxiety and depression by controlling newly born nerve cells in the hippocampus. The image, taken at the Cell Imaging Core, shows these new born cells in the hippocampus, the region of the brain that controls emotions. By constraining the JNK protein solely in newly-generated nerve cells in the hippocampus, the researchers were able to mitigate anxiety and depressive behaviour in mice. From this breakthrough, this previously unknown mechanism brings fresh insight on how the brain works to regulate mood and indicates that inhibitors of JNK, (such as the one used in this particular experiment), can provide a new avenue for antidepressant and anxiolytic drug development.
This research was funded by the EU-funded Marie Curie Initial Training Network r'BIRTH, by the Academy of Finland, Turku Network in Molecular Biosciences and the National Institute on Aging (US). The results are published in the Nature Publishing Group journal Molecular Psychiatry.
The Counter-current Exchange in fish is used as a method for them to gain enough oxygen in the water. This method is used as there is a lack of oxygen that can be found in the water. As a result of this fish have found a way of adapting and evolving in these types of conditions.
Fish use their gills found on the side that is used for them to collect their oxygen. The process of how fish do this is as follows:
Water enters through the mouth of the fish and then it will pass out through the gills. Inside the gills there are small branches known as the: gill filaments this as a result gives it a larger surface area:to allows for gaseous exchange. The surface area is further increased by the small tiny structures known as the : gill plates.
There are many blood capillaries that are found through the gill plates which allows for faster/efficient rate of diffusion Through the gill filaments water will flow one way while the blood flows through the other direction of the gill plates. When the water flows past the blood there can be a high concentration of oxygen found in the water therefore the oxygen will diffuse into the blood. There will also be a large maintenance of concentration gradient between the water and the blood.
Ventilation of gills
Not only do fish use the Countercurrent Exchange but they also have a process where these gills are further ventilated. Ventilation means where fresh air enters through. The mouth of the fish opens up, the floor of the buccal cavity is then lowered. Pressure decreases and water enters in. When the fish closes its mouth the floor of the buccal raises up, volume decreases which then increases the pressure and forces the water out of the filaments. On every gill there is a bony flap known as the operculum which is used to protect the gills.
For many years now the reasons behind the function of the appendix has been a mystery. It has now been uncovered by scientists after years of research its true function. The appendix is the small tube that is found attached to the large intestine. It was first thought that is was a useless organ just found in the body, but researchers at the Midwestern University of Arizona have shown that it is used to shed useful gut bacteria, as at times useful bacteria maybe killed off from the digestive system or any attacks from diseases. This is also commonly known as to be a ‘reservoir’. Tissues that are found on the Appendix are known to stimulate the growth of gut and other beneficial bacteria. In an average adult the appendix can be found to be roughly around 5-10cm long in length. New Research has uncovered that the true purpose of the appendix is that it plays an important role in our immune system.
During/After Birth Lymph tissues are found to form parts of the Appendix. As a result the appendix will then produce B Lymphocytes which produces antibodies. These antibodies are what protects our bodies from invading pathogens.
Even when the Appendix can play a key vital role in our immune system, it can also have a potential of it turning into a condition known as: Appendicitis. This takes place when the appendix becomes inflamed and may rupture. Doctors are still unsure about the causes of appendicitis but they have an idea that it is mainly caused by mucus or faeces that block the appendix. Research has been shown that Teenagers and older children are more prone to these diseases. If it is not treated in time this block can then rupture the appendix.
At first you feel pain around your abdomen area, this will become constant and severe. Other system may include: feeling sick. Diarrhoea and having a high temperature. Coughing and walking tend to make this pain become even worse.
Treatment for Appendicitis is known as: Appendectomy - which is the removal of the Appendix. 2 types of surgery can be performed: Keyhole surgery and Open Surgery. Keyhole surgery is when 3 -4 cuts are made, gas used to inflate the abdomen and the Appendix is removed. Open Surgery involves a larger cut being made to remove the Appendix as the appendix is severely damaged and it may burst at any given time.
Many problems are arising from the overuse of antibiotics: antibiotic resistance. This occurs when the antibiotic used has no effect or has lost the ability of killing and controlling bacteria. As a result bacteria are now able to multiply and grow in colonies inside the body with the presence of antibiotics. These bacteria that are capable of resisting antibiotics are known as: superbugs. In the worst case superbugs can lead to very severe cases. A 70 year old women living in US has died due to a superbug that was resistance to 26 different types of antibiotics. It had been further predicted in the US that superbugs may kill up to 300 million people by 2050. A quote provided by Bruce Geller from the Oregon State University ‘ We’ve lost the ability to use many of our mainstream antibiotics’. He has stated that antibiotic at this present stage has no effect on superbugs and bacteria resistant to antibiotics.
New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1).
New Delhi Metallo - beta - lactamase also known as (NDM - 10) is a gene found in the bacteria that produces an enzyme which destroys Beta - Lactam found in a class of antibiotics and penicillin. Furthermore other classes of antibiotics known as: Carbapenems are also destroyed by an enzyme: Carbapenemase - which further allows other classes of antibiotics to be immune to bacteria. Overuses of Carbapenems and antibiotics led to the development of NDM -1 enzymes in bacteria.
However scientists have now created a molecule that has the ability of reversing such bacteria that are immune to antibiotics. Even though they have modified antibiotics this has lead to the mutations of bacteria which were resisting even the modified versions of antibiotics. This specific type of molecule contains: Peptide Phosphorodiamidate mophino Oligomer (PPMO). This substance inhibits and destroys New Delhi Metallo - Beta - Lactamase (NDM - 1). A test trial was then conducted and was seen that it still had no effect as it was still producing NDM - 1.
When PPMO mixed with Meropenem ( a type of Carbapenem) it had a total reverse effect on bacteria being able to resist antibiotic. This was again tested on E.coli bacteria and was proven right that it was capable of destroying NDM -1 and bacteria were now not babe to resist antibiotics.
This is now ready and is currently undergoing intense clinical trials and tests and we can only see after if this is truly our answer to reversing antibiotic resistance
On the 5th of January of this year, a baby girl of three parents was born. The child is the second three-parent baby the world has ever seen; the first being created in Mexico. This, however, does not disregard the fact that the method used by doctors in Kiev, was the first. They used a method called pronuclear transfer which involves three steps:
Firstly, the mother’s egg is fertilised by the father’s sperm as normal. Then, the combined genes are removed from the parents’ embryo and replaces the nucleus of the donor’s embryo. As a result, the child will contain the genetic identity of his/ her parents as well as a small amount from the donor’s.
IVF has been known to help infertile couples have babies but three-person IVF is able to do more. It allows women carrying genetic disorders to have a healthy child. An example of a genetic disorder is mitochondrial disease: one that has mutations in the mitochondria of cells, leading to the birth of disabled children. Sometimes, their disabilities can be so severe that it eventually leads to death. Three-person IVF avoids diseases like these being passed down to babies, as the donor has healthy embryos whilst keeping the DNA of the parents. The UK has laws that allow this research and experiments for couples with mitochondrial diseases. Despite this, a three-parent baby has not yet been born in Britain.
Of course, with revolutionary science comes ethical questions and controversy. It has been said that pronuclear transfer is experimental and has not actually been properly evaluated and will need further research as well as precaution. A possible question that may arise is whether or not humans are playing the role of God? Methods like these can be perceived as meddling which can offend many religions, who may think humans are acting as superiors. Some may even question the existence of a God.
As always, there is also the moral rights which need to be respected. How would the child feel about having been created by three-person IVF? Although, it could greatly reduce the population of newborns with genetic disorders and could possibly, in the long term, minimise the risks of diseases. Moreover, it can potentially increase the gene pool, as the baby would have a greater genetic variety. This means there is a higher chance of the future population surviving new-found diseases or environmental changes that could take place in the future. With this, how close are we to developing designer babies? If so, is it right that humans can manipulate life purely for our benefit?
Many of the world’s species are facing extinction in present day due to a number of factors in which we contribute too. Over 60% of species in the world are now threatened with extinction. Extinction is the state and process of being completely removed; many organisms in the past have been made extinct, for example: the Mammoth, the Dodo and the West African Black Rhino most recently.
A study which included more than 30 scientists assessed the conservation of 500 individual species, which declared that 75% of the species have populations which are declining. This is an alarming figure. Extinction is caused by human factors and environmental factors, however the long term effects could be drastic, as so much of the way we live is due to animals and what they bring to us.
One of the main reasons for extinction is the rapid increase in deforestation. Forests are being cut down and habitats are being destroyed every day, being converted into industrial agriculture to benefit humans. This included the want for livestock and cattle ranching; oil and gas drilling and mining. This has left primates with nowhere to live.
Another reason for extinction to occur is due to the large amount of poverty in the third world, with a shortage of food and water caused primates to be hunted for meat and trade. An example of this is the elephant, which are regularly hunted and killed in order for their tusks, made of ivory, to be sold on the black market,
Climate change across the world is another reason causing extinction to species. Some species are unable to adapt to changing conditions, meaning they will hinder the repopulation of their species which will lead to extinction. Melting icebergs mean that many species are unable to cope with changing sea levels, which has an effect of the way that species functions in the ocean, but also alter the environments that are within the ocean.
One final cause for extinction is the amount of pollution in our air. With the growing number of industries and TNC’s around the world, many factories have been opened to cope with the growing demand. This has resulted in high levels of air pollution and smog, with many people in China having to wear a mask due to the serious health risks the air has. The animals breathe the same air as we do, so it does just as much harm to them as it does to us, meaning they find it hard to respire and reproduce, leading to extinction.
The clear message from this article is that we, as Humans, need to start respecting the Earth and species a bit more than what we are doing currently, working together in order to get the best out of each other, before it is too late.
The human body is vastly complex, often words cannot describe how the body works the way it does, in perfect synchronicity, a system of organs working together. The number of organs was at 78, until the discovery of mesentery. Mesentery has been hiding in plain sight, from scientists since Da Vinci first identified it, however many failed to acknowledge that it was one continuous organ. Recently J Calvin Coffey, who is a researcher at University Hospital Limerick, proved that mesentery was in fact an organ. This is a change from the fragmented structure that it was thought to be, and now the importance of it has been highlighted, and now researchers will look to see what roles it plays. It has been dubbed as a portal to a new area of science, in which scientists will be able to see what roles mesentery plays in diseases. There is a possibility that mesentery could lead to changes in treatments of abdominal diseases.
The function of mesentery is currently unknown and this is where the scientists will play a key role in identifying its true purpose. As of know it is understood that mesentery keeps the intestines in a particular formation, and if it attaches to the abdominal wall in an incorrect manner then it could cause death of the intestine. Mesentery is a double fold of peritoneum (which is a large membrane found in the abdominal cavity) and it supports nearby organs. The mesentery folding attaches the small intestine and large intestine to the walls of the abdomen. When peritonitis occurs, the peritoneum membrane becomes inflamed as a result of organs rubbing against each other and no to little serum is produced. The abdominal cavity is the largest hollow part of the body found just below the diaphragm. Inside the cavity are parts of the digestive system: liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas and the adrenal glands. The cavity is lined with peritoneum and mesentery provides the foldings for support.
The discovery was first noted in The Lancet, which is a reputable medical journal. Once again discoveries have changed our understanding of the human body, and once again Leonardo Da Vinci’s intelligence shines, showing just how far ahead of his time he was, that it took 509 years for us to confirm what he already knew. With this latest discovery there are now 79 organs, and Gray’s Anatomy has been updated to accommodate this, but there is little doubt that this discovery could have big repercussions in the field of abdominal disease research.
Water purification plays a key role in ensuring that we have safe, germ free drinking water each day. We take this for granted without knowing the facts and steps taken in order for us to obtain this. If it wasn’t for this system created, millions would be faced with the possibility of getting water borne diseases, which could result in death. According to wateraid, one in eight human beings around the world, mostly in the developing word, go without clean, drinkable water every day. To top this, every 20 seconds, one child dies from diarrhea caused by contaminated water and poor sanitation. In wealthier countries like the UK, this is less common due to the system which will be talked about in this article.
Water, often from lakes and rivers, are taken in by large pumps into the purification plant. These pumps contain screens that exclude organisms, weeds, branches and other debris. However, these screens may not be required for groundwater due to these objects and organisms not being likely to found in the water. The purification plant may aerate the water to increase the oxygen content, helping remove nasty odors and tastes within the water.
Coagulation and Flocculation
This step of the process helps clear water of small particles in the water that cause it to look cloudy and turbid. Turbidity renders the water hard to disinfect. This helps remove coagulant chemicals throughout it. The small particles, including many bacteria, begin to form large clumps called flocs or floccules. In flocculation, the water is mixed and stirred gently so that these clumps combine and precipitate out further.
The water and flocs are pumped into sedimentation basins. In this stage, the flocs settle beneath the water so that they can be removed. About 90% of the suspended particles responsible for turbidity are removed at this point, so the water is almost certain to not become turbid. Furthermore, large amounts of bacteria are removed in this stage.
In filtration, the water flows through a multilayer medium such as sand, activated carbon or anthracite coal. This helps remove 99.5% of the solid materials remaining it, whether flocs, microbes or minerals. This step usually is the last one in the process of removing solid substances from the water.
This stage kills of disease bearing organisms in the water, This is done using chlorine compounds as disinfectants. Although chlorine is still one of the most common disinfectants, ultraviolet radiation and ozone gas becoming more widespread. Chlorine is increasing in cost and have health effects on humans and fish. In addition, some disease-carrying microbes resist chlorine.
Corrosion and Scale Control
The pH of the water is adjusted so that it neither corrodes nor deposits too much scale in pipes. Small quantities help pipes function but excess quantities disrupt plumbing systems. However, no amount of corrosion in the water distribution system is desirable. Corrosion of pipes release leads and copper which are poisonous.
Taste and Odor Control
The final stage of the process is to add chemicals, ozonation or filtration in order to remove tastes and odors. At this stage, some municipalities also require the addition of fluoride to the water for dental health.
This process is very important but it is undermined, not thought of highly, it is a complex process and is important for health. In areas where there are poor sanitary conditions, it is important that water is placed through a process similar to this, to reduce the number of diseases caused through poor water hygiene.
Epithelia are formed of cells that line the cavities around the body and cover many of the flat surfaces on our body. For example, our hand wouldn't be as smooth as it is without the millions of epithelial cells lining the skin. Epithelial cells can join together to form epithelial membranes and tissues, called epithelium. These are vital in our day to day functioning and allow us to live the way we do, helping us survive. There are several functions that the epithelial tissue performs, with the primary function being to protect. However, it’s also involved in filtration, secretion and absorption within the human body.
Epithelial cells are stuck together in sheets of tissue called epithelia. The sheets are held together by different types of interactions and gap junction. One junction is the tight junction, which is considered the closest junction in the world. Epithelium is given support on the base of the cell by a basement membrane called the basal lamina. This lies on the capillary bed, which provides epithelia with enough nutrients and disposal of waste products.
One of the main function of epithelial cells are to protect. The skin, which is covered by the cells, protect the body from invasion of germs and harmful bacteria, preventing infection and other illnesses. The cells also act as a barrier to sunlight and UV, protecting us from the dangers of the light and preventing skin cancer and skin burn. Another function of the cells is to filter our dirt and dust particles from our body, helping us keep cleaner and fresher both internally and externally. In addition to this, they are involved in the process of secretion. Epithelial cells form glands of the body, which secrete hormones and enzymes around the body, helping us function. However, they also have the ability to secrete wax, digestive enzymes and milk, further aiding us and other humans. Finally, they are involved in absorption, in which they absorb food and water, playing a huge part in the body's digestive system.
There are several different types of epithelial tissue:
Meiosis is an incredibly important process which allows for gametes to be produced, these gametes are a necessity for sexual reproduction. Two gametes join together and fertilise to form a zygote, which develops into a new organism. Meiosis occurs in the reproductive organs to produce gametes. Meiosis involves a reduction division. Now this reduction division process, means that cells that divide by meiosis have the full number of chromosomes to start with, but the cells that are formed from meiosis have half the number. These cells are called haploid cells, and they have half the normal number of chromosomes (hence the term haploid). The unique feature of the cells formed by meiosis, are that they are all genetically different because each new cell ends up with a different combination of chromosomes.
Meiosis itself is characterized by two divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. Meiosis I is the reduction division due to the fact it halves the chromosome number. Meiosis I and II are still split into the four phases; PMAT. Prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. To start with, meiosis begins with interphase, in which the DNA unravels and replicates to produced double armed chromosomes called sister chromatids.
In the first Meiosis I division
Prophase I; The chromosomes condense, and coil up, reducing their size and arrange themselves in homologous pairs (this means one chromosome from the father and one from the mother pair up) and crossing over occurs, this is the source of genetic variation. Centrioles begin to move to opposite ends of the cell forming the spindle fibres. The nuclear envelope breaks down.
Metaphase I; The homologous pairs line up at the metaphase plate at the centre of the cells, and spindle fibres attach to the kinetochore.
Anaphase I; The spindles shorten and separate the homologous pairs- one chromosome goes to each end of the cell.
Telophase I; A nuclear envelope forms around each group of chromosomes and cytokinesis occurs to split the cytoplasm and two haploid daughter cells are produced. The chromosome number is halved.
Then the second Meiosis II division follows
The two daughter cells undergo prophase II, metaphase II, telophase II and cytokinesis – in a fashion similar to the stages in mitosis.
In anaphase II, the pairs of sister chromatids are separated- each new daughter cell inherits one chromatid from each chromosome. Four (genetically identical) haploid daughter cells are produced – and these are the gametes.
The production of genetically different cells, is a reason as to why meiosis is an important
process. There are two main events in meiosis that lead to genetic variation.
The crossing over of chromatids in prophase I, means that each of the four daughter cells formed from meiosis contains chromatids with different alleles.
The independent assortment of chromosomes is the other event that leads to genetic variation.
Each homologous pair of chromosomes in your cells is made up of one chromosome from the maternal and one from the paternal. In metaphase I homologous pairs line up and in anaphase I they split up, and as to where which chromosome ends up in which daughter cell, is arbitrary. So the four daughter cells produced by meiosis have completely different combinations of those maternal and paternal chromosomes. This is called independent assortment, and the shuffling of chromosomes leads to genetic variation in any potential offspring.
Science of deduction
This weeks article will teach you how to understand and be able to use deductive reasoning.
Intuition is the ability to understand something instinctively without the need for conscious reasoning. This ability can be seen in everyday life, the way certain problems surface and how through natural instinct we react., Examples include touching something that is hot without being aware of it. The human instinct is to back away as quickly as possible. However in deductive reasoning, the human intuition must be expanded and cannot be kept to such a basic form of instinctive behaviour.
So we need to develop our intuition. This is a form of evolutionary advantage that allows humans to glance and then understand who is a friend and who is an enemy. Intuition cannot be learnt it must be developed through personal experiences and and practice. It is a useful method in drawing conclusions about the human nature, such as the relationships and connections with other, these are normally linked with emotion. Thus institutions is useful when dealing with such situations
The human mind intuition can be summarized into 2 categories one is rapid intuition and is instinctive, this is based upon emotion.
System 2 is based upon a more slow and deliberate reasoning. Most people tend to go towards system 2, as provides a more logical way of understanding and omits the common tendency of humans. This is known as logical thinking. However in order to be able to use deductive reasoning a combination of system 1 and system 2 must be used in order to fully understand a problem.
As we age we gain knowledge and we begin to use our instincts in certain situations, we cannot explain why this is the right choice but we have this feeling that it is correct. This is due to unconscious reasoning behind the feeling that has been developed over years of experience allowing our brains to take all the facts and still come out with a quick answer.
A common saying is that after intense focus on one discipline, which would take up to 10000 hours a persons brain is physically altered to the point where instinct and intuition open up to a new level of thought. This would allow problems that would normally take hours to solve, can be figured out within minutes. The human subconscious is powerful. It drives out feelings and motives, since it is the true image of oneself and by completely understanding a field it will provide solutions to certain problems that normally wouldn't be thought of.
Deducing through studying a person
By watching and observing a person, it is possible to learn how they are feeling. Naturally some people are better than others, and women are better than men due to natural selection. However body can be learnt and it will provide information on the person. Their movements, style of walking, their tone each when put together like a puzzle form a complete picture that is a image of that person telling you who they are.
Their is guessing involved but as you gain more and more experience, you will start getting more accurate and closer to the truth, as you will be able to identify specific behavioural traits and mannerism that can serve as future reference.
Power of Observation
As I have previously stated, the quote “You see, but you do not observe”
Being observant is about slowing the pace down and taking time to look at the small details that are often overlooked. Increasingly people rush around spending little time observing and make assumptions based on obvious things without considering the fine details. The fine details are the reflection of the truth. They are closest to the solution you seek. This is because the little details are left alone, preserved as the large more easy to understand details are changed.