Enzymes are arguably one of the most important catalysts in the human body. Without them we would be dead. Essentially they are proteins but their role is extremely important in catalysing reactions such as growth or digestion, we would sure miss them they were gone. Whilst we can agree that they are very important, the method as to how they work is debatable. For a reaction to start, the activation energy needs to be supplied, this is a certain amount that enzymes help the molecules achieve. However the method has been shortlisted to two hypotheses. The Lock and Key hypothesis and the Induced-fit hypothesis.
The lock and key hypothesis is the traditional and more accepted method. It works by reaching the active site. The active site is an area within the complex 3D tertiary structure of the enzyme, which has a shape that is complementary to the shape of the specific substrate molecule.
The way this woks is literally like a key entering a lock, likewise only a specific substrate will fit the active site of an enzyme. When the substrate is bound to the active site, an enzyme-substrate complex is formed. The substrate/substrates then react and the product/products are formed in an enzyme-product complex. The porduct/products are then released, leaving the enzyme unchanged and able to take part in subsequent reactions.
The substrate is held in such a way by the enzyme that the right atom-groups are close enough to react. The R groups within the active site of the enzyme will also interact with the substrate, forming temporary bonds. These put strain on the bonds within the substance which also helps the reaction along.
The other hypothesis is a more recent development from newer evidence from research. Evidence shows that the active site of the enzyme actually changes the shape slightly as the substrate enters. This is known as the induced-hypothesis and is a modified version of the lock and key hypothesis. The initial interaction between the enzyme and substrate is relatively weak, but these weak interactions rapidly induce changes in the tertiary structure of the enzyme. By putting strain on the substrate molecule. This allows bonds in the substrate to be weakened and effectively lower the activation energy for the reaction.
Research is very complex and time consuming, but it is very important. In this case it has allowed for a new model as to how enzymes lower activation energy to arise. Only further research will show a clear accepted model but for now there are two main hypotheses.
Genetic engineering is the process to alter the structure and behaviour of the genes in human, animals and food. It involves using biological techniques such as: molecular cloning and transformation. Within these techniques, the addition and modification of DNA in organisms take place, which could help the organisms physical and behavioural adaptations, whilst also increasing its chance of survival. But the real question brought about in the modern day is: should it really be allowed?
A fear of genetic engineering is that us human may be interfering with nature, and cheating God out of his chance to decide whether we have blue or black eyes, or how intelligent we were born. There are many pros of genetic engineering, hence why it is being done many a time in the modern day. These include
To conclude, my stance of genetic engineering is that although the positives help modern day society and could undoubtedly help the future, the process goes against God’s will, and can have fatal consequences if performed incorrectly. Therefore, I am against the process.
DNA is incredibly important for humans. Its how our off springs look similar to us; it allows for us to be related. DNA is in fact a nucleotide, two nucleotides spiral together to create DNA double helix. Nucleotides are very important types of biological molecules and they are incredibly complex, but luckily there structure can be explained in a (relatively) understandable fashion. DNA nucleotides have a pentose sugar which is called deoxyribose (DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid). In your body every single DNA nucleotide has the same sugar and a phosphate group. However the base on each nucleotide can vary; there are 4 possible bases. Adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). There are two types of bases in which all four them belong. Purine bases are larger as they contain two carbon-nitrogen rings; the two Purine bases are Adenine and Guanine.
Pyrimidines are the other type of base that there is. Pyrimidines are smaller than Purine as they have one carbon-nitrogen ring. Cytosine and Thymine are pyrimidines and it is easy to remember that is Pyrimidines bases have a Y in them. A molecule of DNA contains two polynucleotide chains - of which each chain is made up of lots of nucleotides joined together.
RNA is another nucleotide which is as important as DNA is, but we all know that DNA gets the spotlight because of Jurassic Park. Ribonucleic acid contains nucleotides with a ribose sugar. The similarities are that RNA has a phosphate group and one of four different bases. In RNA there is no thymine rather Uracil replaces it. Uracil is a pyrimidine. An RNA molecule is made up of a single polynucleotide chain, whereas DNA is made up of two polynucleotide chains. RNA is incredibly important as it allows proteins to be created, without RNA we would die very quickly as our bodies would not be able to metabolise, and cells would not be able to do anything at all.
RNA and DNA seem similar when pronounced but upon further research you can see the difference they have and both have an important role in the body and allow it to function the way it does. The subtle changes make a big difference in how they behave.
The enzyme Helicase plays an incredibly important role in the semi conservative replication of DNA. Before replication can occur, the unwinding and separating of the two strands of the DNA double helix is carried out by helicase. Helicase travels along the DNA backbone,catalysing reactions that break the hydrogen bonds between complementary base-pairing as it reaches them. This act is known as the unzipping of the strand. This process is very important as it leads onto another stage of DNA replication.
After the two strands have split, free nucleotides that have been activated are attracted to their complementary bases. The nucleotides are lined up and they are joined together by DNA polymerase, for every codon. All the nucleotides are joined to form a complete polynucleotide chain using the DNA polymerase. As a result two identical strands of DNA are formed, each new molecule of DNA is composed of one original strand and one newly formed strand. This is called semi conservative replication. This is a vitally important process as cells divide to produce more cells needed for growth and repair of tissues. The cells need to be genetically identical to the parent cell and to each other; they need to have DNA with a base sequence identical to the original parent cell, The cells are made in the process of DNA replication; which can only be done by this enzymes. Without them the DNA double helix would never be able to be unwound and nucleotides could never be joined together after lining up.
DNA effectively carries a blueprint or instructions as to how proteins are synthesised are needed by organisms, Proteins are made up of a sequence of amino acids, which are folded into complex structures. So DNA must code for a sequence of amino acids- which makes it the genetic code.
A man who for the last 10 years has been popping up everywhere. Probably the Tony Stark of real life.
A brief Background
He was born on June 28 1971 in South Africa. From a very young age Elon Musk developed a creative mind in the field of technology. At the age of 12 he taught himself programming and created a basic video game which he sold and made $500
Age of 19 Musk was accepted at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, where then he spent 2 years and then transferred to the University of Pennsylvania. At the age of 24 he gained a bachelors in physics. He then pursued a doctorate in Physics, however left earlier in order to pursue his entrepreneurial dreams in the areas of the internet and physics.
1995: Musk and his brother started a company called zip-2 which was a web software company that had cost him $28000. He ran the company as a member of the board and later on it was sold, he then received $22 Million as part of his share.
1999: Musk co-founded x.com, which was an online financial service provider, which cost him $10million. He then merged this company with a company called Coinfinity and had the company renamed PayPal. He helped run the company as CEO until 2002 where PayPal was bought by eBay for $1.5billion from which Elon Musk received $165 million.
His current work
With $100 million Elon Musk founded Space Exploration Technologies or SpaceX. With his goal of making us (humans) into a space faring civilisation.
His work with spaceX is the following:
The first rocket Launches were the Falcon 1 and the Falcon 9 which were homages to the Star Wars Millennium Falcon.
In 2006 SpaceX received a contract from NASA to continue work and tests on the Falcon 9 and the Dragon while ( It was the one that docked in the space station)
In December 21015 SpaceX managed to launch and then re land its Falcon 9 rocket, and became the first people in history to ever make this happen.
He believes that he will get people to mars within the next 10 to 20 years and will reduce space exploration costs by a factor of 10.
In 2008 Elon Musk became the ceo of Tesla Motors.
Tesla is a company that produces electric powered cars. Tesla sells Electric Powertrain systems to car manufacturers. An electric powertrain system is the use of electricity as the main component in a car to generate power which is then transferred into movement of the car.
Musk sells electric vehicle powertrain components so that automakers can produce electric vehicles at affordable prices without having to develop the products themselves.
In 2014 Musk had announced that Tesla Motors will allow its operations to be used in good faith in order to speed up the development of electric cars, as currently electric cars make up 1% of car sales.
In 2013 Musk has unveiled a concept for high-speed transportation, known as a hyperloop.
This transport system incorporates reduced pressure tubes in which pressurized capsules ride on an air cushion, driven by air compressors and linear induction motors.
If made possible the cost of travel for long distances would be reduced drastically, as it would require a low amount of power to travel at these speeds. Due to the partial vacuum state the hyperloop would exists in.
The hyperloop proposed speed is around 1,200km/h between distant locations.
It could take a 610 km distant, such as LA to San Francisco in 30 minutes, which is half the time it takes a plane. For this current proposal it would cost $6 Billion to make.
In 2015 Musk announced a design competition for students and others to build hyperloops pods to operate at these speeds. The track is currently under construction and is expected to be early 2017.
In December 2015 Elon Musk announced OpenAI. It is a not-for-profit artificial intelligence research company. Its aim is to develop artificial general intelligence in a way that is safe and beneficial to humanity.
By making it open to everyone, Musk wants to counteract large corporations who may gain too much power by owning super intelligence systems that are devoted to profits, as well as governments who may use it to oppress citizenry.
Quote:The future of humanity is going to bifurcate in two directions: Either it's going to become multi planetary, or it's going to remain confined to one planet and eventually there's going to be an extinction event. - Elon Musk