Coronary heart disease consists of plaque building up and blocking coronary arteries of the all essential oxygen pumped blood, travelling to the heart muscle. Also known as ; atherosclerosis. This can easily lead to a heart attack as the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle are blocked, so there is no oxygen and the heart muscle fails as a result. Even if a patient survives, a heart attack is leaves a permanent damage to the heart muscle, hence why it is important for it to be dealt with as soon as possible. Another effect are heart failures; which is when the heart is too weak to pump blood around the body, causing fluids to build up in the lungs and difficulty breathing. Common symptoms include: angina (chest pain, which can spread to upper parts of the body), physical activity can cause more stress to the heart muscle, however can be relieved by nitrate tablets and sprays. Bypass surgery; helps to reduce the risk of an individual's heart attack, but this procedure tends to be very stressful and can potentially be risky to a certain extent. Also, rehabilitation programmes consist of: exercise, education on ‘chd’, change in lifestyle, relaxation and emotional support. Furthermore, warfarin (an anticoagulant, thinning blind) and a pacemaker helping to regulate heart beats, supposedly increasing blood flow.
With treatment comes costs for:individual health care, time-off work, government costs and a loss in productivity. In 2009 ‘chd’ costed the UK healthcare industry, a staggering £8.7 billion and £19 billion altogether for the UK economy. The world health organisation ‘who’, commented by saying; smoking health care is costing $200 billion every year, with ⅓ of this happening in developing countries. ‘Who’, also said in 2000, citizens over 65 in the United States of America were costing $76 billion out of the economy. On a positive note, they do believe that deaths and disabilities from coronary heart disease has in fact halved with new drugs costing $14 per year per person.
Preventing the disease is a socially and economical benefiting factor to us all. With education, there is hoped to be affordable treatment with new medical advances, also by advising patients on living a healthy lifestyle. Commonly, uk dietieners have promoted the benefits of foods such as: oily fish, fruit, vegetables and generally less saturated fats in everyday diets. Finland have taken a clever approach in health education, by nutritional labelling and cholesterol levels of foods, allowing a rapid decline in heart disease, throughout the country. Health educational campaigns, in Japan increased treatment and caused a decline in high blood pressure. New Zealand, have gone directly to manufacturers and urged them to reformulate products, reducing a significant quantity of salts and cholesterol causing additives. The change from palm oil to soya oil has transitioned within Mauritius, which is a healthier approach, reducing cholesterol but not affecting obesity rates.
The world health organisation, initiated activities to assist schools, since 2000, co-ordinating world heart day, 29th September each year. In 2000; 63 countries participated in world heart day and in 2015 over 120 now do.Some activities include: medical activities like blood pressure testing, promoting the benefits of physical activity, holding science conferences and creating heart-healthy diets.
At the end of the day the government is the one power which can legislate and control the disease by reducing tobacco smoking which would reduce heart disease, saving lives and taxpayers money. Advertising bans, taxing tobacco and serious health warnings on packets are all good examples. Singapore first introduced there smoking ban in the 1970s and 37 years later the uk has started using it.
Mitosis is needed for growth of multicellular organisms and for repairing damaged tissues within the human body. It is also a method for asexual reproduction for some plants, animals and fungi. It is a continuous process which has 4 division stages. Throughout this article, I will be explaining the steps:
The checkpoints are G1,G2 and the spindle assembly checkpoint
During the interphase, the cell can enter the G0 phase, either temporarily or permanently. The reasons as to why this happen could be due to differentiation (when the cell specializes) or the DNA of the cell may be damaged. These cells enter G0 and an increase in these could lead to diseases such as arthritis or cancer. Some G0 cells can go back into the cell cycle and start dividing again.
This process happens in the matter of seconds in the human body and remains a key process which allows us to function correctly and live the way we do.
The Human Mind
In the previous article I had stated that the human mind had flaws, however that was a mere test in order to distinguish those who would want to improve themselves from those who believe themselves to not come under the categories in the previous articles.
The correct way to define the human mind is not that we have flaws but that we have personal obstacles that must be overcome in order to understand and truly appreciate creative thinking. The word “flaw” was used in order to distinguish those who hunt for success and those who passively wait on the sidelines waiting for success to fall in their laps.
In order to understand deductive reasoning one must first become creative in the way we think, seeing scenarios that people who aren't creative enough dont. But to do so we must first overcome the minds obstacles.
Lack of Direction:
To think creatively and out of the box your goals and objectives need to be clear, and that you understand where you want to be once you are finished. Once at this stage and you are clear about your goals your creative mind will spring to life. You mind immediately starts to think of clever and ingenious ways to tackling the problems that arise.
Fear of Failure
Society seem to think that failure goes against growth and instead regresses you . Instead it is a crucial piece for success, it is absolutely needed for one to grow from within. So stop fearing failure instead embrace it, and use the failure to better yourself so that every time you step out of the dark you are a new and self improved person, and it's this mindset that allow people to go on to do extraordinary things with their life.
Fear of Criticism
Fear of criticism, something that society is shaped by. You do not go do something different because it's taboo or no one else does it. But fear of criticism goes deeper, in fact it is triggered by the desire to be liked and approved by others, even people who do not know or care about you. So you decide that to get along with people you must go along with what they do.
Remove this mindset. Be an individual. Seek greatness. You will never be challenged if you seek to please others, seek to please yourself. Seek greatness. Set yourself a target that others think unachievable, and I dare you to go prove them wrong, I dare you.
You must constantly stimulate your mind with new information and ideas, otherwise your mind loses its energy and its ability to remain unique. You fall into a passive and automatic routine that subjects you to the same boring and ordinary life of the common person. The difference between you and someone who achieved great is that they challenged their way of life. They challenged their days. Be proactive. Come up with unique and individually crafted solutions to problems and fear not the negativity and discouragement by those around you. For most of the time they feel threatened by the change to their old ways. If you wake up 7 am wake up 6 am and use that 1 hour to learn something new. Increase You knowledge bank and creativity will flow out of your mind.
Humans are rational beings we all know that. But by being rational we use our minds to explains the world and come up with self made judgements in order to understand it better and feel more secure. So we come up with excuses for what we do or do not do. In Order to become a creative thinker, stop coming up with excuses! Learn to accept that what you did or did not do was a regression on your part and will solely affect your ability to rise to the top.
This week’s article has covered the minds weaknesses and how we must overcome these obstacles and learn how to creatively think.
Next week’s article will be going onto learning Deductive reasoning.
Genetic engineering is rapidly being used by many scientists around the world, helping cure and remove many diseases and gene defects in humans. However, it is now being said that hundreds of thousands of animals are also being engineered, not just for their own benefits, but for our benefits. Throughout this article, I will be addressing the growing concerns regarding the issue, giving a run down on the benefits for humans, whilst also talking about the risks involved, both for the animals and the humans.
Genetic engineering can be used to add or remove genes in DNA. The process of the experiment is very slow, however new research and a development in technology has made the process more efficient and quicker. Some of the benefits of the process include:
To conclude this article, I think that genetic engineering should not be conducted on animals for human benefits as it is a very dangerous process which has killed thousands of innocent animals and has had effects on both the ecosystems and children of the animals.
The cell membrane keeps us alive. But in doing so, it carries out a big task, a complex task, one that requires for the cell membrane to be built of many different components.
All membranes in a cell have the same basic structure. The cell surface membrane which separates the cell from its external environment is known as the plasma membrane. The membrane is very important and is formed from a phospholipid bilayer, which is the foundation. It is made up of hydrophilic phosphate heads, of which the phoshpholipids form both the inner and outer surface of a membrane. The fatty acid tails of the phosholipids form a hydrophobic core inside the membrane.
Cells are made to exist in aqueous environments, and the inside of cells and organelles are also usually aqueous environments. For this reason the phospholipid bilayers are perfectly suited as membranes because the outer surfaces of the hydrophilic phosphate heads can interact with water.
The next few weeks as part of the science page shall come forth a series of articles regarding the science of deduction, I will be explaining the concept of deductive reasoning that is behind the infamous Sherlock Holmes (TV series) and its application in real life.
Deductive reasoning, is the logical process in which a conclusion is based in accordance with multiple premises (factors) that are assumed to be true.
Human tend to have a specific pattern which almost everyone (including me) follows. Where we see but do not observe.
What I mean by this; Our minds think in a certain way, if we see a car crash we automatically come up with our assumptions and through the act of deduction can we figure out how the car hit the other car and so forth.
Yet there is a physiological limit within our minds.
We do not see the subtle changes in our surroundings; due to the difficulty to search for them or that we simply do not see/notice them.
If we cannot conclude within a small time frames our minds turn off. We do not like being in situations where we have to use our brains excessively. This correlation can be seen with important examinations. We do not like being tested as it shows our flaws and our imperfections, and it's these flaws and imperfections that then must be changed in order to better ourselves. We do not like change.
Change is difficult, as we must use our minds to change, but using them in the first place, burdens us with hardships and problems. These hardships correlate with increase in stress and as a result makes it thus harder to pursue change and improvement.
Science of Deduction
The science of deduction, is a pathway of seeing the world differently, a way to observe and not just see. It is a method to show you the deeper meaning associated with understanding of what is around you.
Deductive reasoning requires you to tap into creativity, your imagination and the facts you observe are crucial in order to deduce anything.
Imagination is crucial, without imagining any possible outcomes or solution you cannot advance.
Being neutral allows you open all possible solutions, and doesn't make you narrow minded to someone you do not like or have any prejudice towards. Facts must only be taken into account and nothing else.
The emotions connected with a scenario be it positive or negative are only secondary and so you must overlook them.
This was a brief introduction into Deductive reasoning. Following articles with the same topic will go into more depth, applying deductive reasoning into real life and also how to learn deductive reasoning.
We will also go over the flaws of the human mind and its nature and how to control them in order for them to be in your favour.
If you would like to learn more on Deductive reasoning or how to learn it, watch the Sherlock Holmes series, which would provide you with a great introduction to deduction.
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells which come from multicellular organisms. They are capable of giving rise to similar types of cells, which certain other cells arise by differentiation. But there are many pros and cons about whether or not they should be used. Throughout this article, I will explain and give my point of view
Stem cells are found in the bone marrow of human, but also in embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development. They are capable of replacing lost/damaged cells within humans, making them very prestigious. However, the fact that many embryos are denied the chance to live raised the question on whether the research and use of the cells should carry on. It’s a true fact that many of the embryos used are once in which the mother has decided not to give birth to, or ones which have minor defects and a low chance of coming out of the womb alive.
Stem cells have shown that they are extremely beneficial in therapeutic cloning to treat chronic illness. They’ve also been an asset into the advancement of modern day regenerative medicine. They also cure development defects before they happen, meaning they could possibly correct an illness or fault in a child even before it is born, improving their quality of life and increasing their chance of survival. Furthermore, they give us a better understanding of how our body functions, which is vital for the advancement of medical processes and curing degenerative illnesses. An example of this would be Parkinson’s disease and cancer, which can be treated with the use of stem cells.
In contrast, there are many disadvantages which cause moral issues. One of them is the high level of uncertainty it causes. Major advancements still need to be made and there must be an advance in new technology in order to make sure the use of stem cells is fully safe and has no harmful defects. The biggest moral argument is that many people believe that altering the basic structure of a human’s genes is putting hands somewhere they shouldn’t be. This could also cause perpetuate clones of humans. This means making an exact genetic copy of living organisms. Cloning is another issue which has had negative effects.
To conclude, I believe that stem cell research should go ahead as it can benefit the future society in many ways, and help increase the life expectancy of those who have these illnesses and diseases, I strongly object in the fact that it should be allowed to aid in the process of cloning however.