For many years the use of deep brain stimulation otherwise known as: DBS, has been used to treat those who have had Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders. Parkinson’s disease is a condition where parts of the brain become damaged over a period of time. Alzheimer's is a type of dementia that affect memory of the brain and its functions.
Starting in 1997 a most complex surgery of where thin wired electrodes are implanted. This can also be known as a brain’s pacemakers - helping it send nerve impulses to the subthalamic part of the brain. The subthalamic nucleus found in the brain performs its functions as part of the Basal Ganglia system - it contains many neurons that connect and run through the brain. This surgery is done by drilling through the skull of the patient and the wired electrodes are passed through.
Now after some long periods of research conducted they have been now able to invasive methods of looking at nerve patterns and stimulate impulses from outside of the brain. This new technique is known as the: Temporal Interference. Conducted by Boyden and Nir Grossman they were able to activate neurons in the brain by using electrical fields. Our brain cells will not react to any type of high frequencies but will only react to low frequencies. They had suggested a hypothesis that if they send 2 high frequency signals that only differ by a small amount - then they would interfere causing a much lower frequency which activates neurones.
They had first done computer models and then moved onto testing on mice. They had placed electrical nodes in the hippocampus of the brain. They monitored the activity of the brain in the ice by using a clamping patch. A gene found in the brain known as the: c-Fos had actively triggered neurons at a fast rate that were responding to the frequencies being sent. After testing on dead mice they then moved onto testing on real mice - they use fluorescent pigments to help monitor the alive brain cell and also differentiate them from the dead.