Coronary heart disease consists of plaque building up and blocking coronary arteries of the all essential oxygen pumped blood, travelling to the heart muscle. Also known as ; atherosclerosis. This can easily lead to a heart attack as the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle are blocked, so there is no oxygen and the heart muscle fails as a result. Even if a patient survives, a heart attack is leaves a permanent damage to the heart muscle, hence why it is important for it to be dealt with as soon as possible. Another effect are heart failures; which is when the heart is too weak to pump blood around the body, causing fluids to build up in the lungs and difficulty breathing. Common symptoms include: angina (chest pain, which can spread to upper parts of the body), physical activity can cause more stress to the heart muscle, however can be relieved by nitrate tablets and sprays. Bypass surgery; helps to reduce the risk of an individual's heart attack, but this procedure tends to be very stressful and can potentially be risky to a certain extent. Also, rehabilitation programmes consist of: exercise, education on ‘chd’, change in lifestyle, relaxation and emotional support. Furthermore, warfarin (an anticoagulant, thinning blind) and a pacemaker helping to regulate heart beats, supposedly increasing blood flow.
With treatment comes costs for:individual health care, time-off work, government costs and a loss in productivity. In 2009 ‘chd’ costed the UK healthcare industry, a staggering £8.7 billion and £19 billion altogether for the UK economy. The world health organisation ‘who’, commented by saying; smoking health care is costing $200 billion every year, with ⅓ of this happening in developing countries. ‘Who’, also said in 2000, citizens over 65 in the United States of America were costing $76 billion out of the economy. On a positive note, they do believe that deaths and disabilities from coronary heart disease has in fact halved with new drugs costing $14 per year per person.
Preventing the disease is a socially and economical benefiting factor to us all. With education, there is hoped to be affordable treatment with new medical advances, also by advising patients on living a healthy lifestyle. Commonly, uk dietieners have promoted the benefits of foods such as: oily fish, fruit, vegetables and generally less saturated fats in everyday diets. Finland have taken a clever approach in health education, by nutritional labelling and cholesterol levels of foods, allowing a rapid decline in heart disease, throughout the country. Health educational campaigns, in Japan increased treatment and caused a decline in high blood pressure. New Zealand, have gone directly to manufacturers and urged them to reformulate products, reducing a significant quantity of salts and cholesterol causing additives. The change from palm oil to soya oil has transitioned within Mauritius, which is a healthier approach, reducing cholesterol but not affecting obesity rates.
The world health organisation, initiated activities to assist schools, since 2000, co-ordinating world heart day, 29th September each year. In 2000; 63 countries participated in world heart day and in 2015 over 120 now do.Some activities include: medical activities like blood pressure testing, promoting the benefits of physical activity, holding science conferences and creating heart-healthy diets.
At the end of the day the government is the one power which can legislate and control the disease by reducing tobacco smoking which would reduce heart disease, saving lives and taxpayers money. Advertising bans, taxing tobacco and serious health warnings on packets are all good examples. Singapore first introduced there smoking ban in the 1970s and 37 years later the uk has started using it.